- Ephraim Okoro, Howard University
- Peter W. Cardon, University of Southern California
- Bryan Marshall, Georgia College and State University
- Otis Thomas, Bowie State University
This article describes research about horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism(HVIC) among African American and European American university students. The survey is based on the work of Harry Triandis (1995), one of the seminal researchers of individualism and collectivism (I-C). The survey of attitude and scenario items, developed by Harry Triandis (1995),was administered to undergraduate management students in three universities in the Eastern and Southeastern United States. Many of the attitude and scenario survey items directly address preferred communication patterns. The findings are also interpreted in terms of situational preferences about I-C, including the following contexts: social events, workplace decisions, and group and work dynamics. The research is unique in that it measures four types of the I-C dimension: horizontal individualism, vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism, and vertical collectivism, as conceptualized by Triandis (1995). Furthermore, it emerges from the premise that cultures are neither strictly collectivist nor individualist; rather, cultures have profiles in which individualist tendencies are prominent in some circumstances whereas collectivist tendencies are emphasized in others. Also, this article provides findings that can easily be converted into training about cross-cultural similarities and differences. Related recommendations for future research and implications for teaching are provided.
Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Horizontal Individualism, Vertical Individualism, Collectivist, Individualist, European American, African American, Cultural Dimensions
APA Citation: Okoro, E. A., Cardon, P. W., Marshall, B., & Thomas, O. (2011). A hybrid analysis of horizontal and vertical individualist and collectivist tendencies among African American and European American management students. Journal of Diversity Management, 6(3), 7-18.