• Ephraim Okoro, Howard University
  • Peter Cardon, University of Southern California
  • Bryan Marshall, Georgia College


This article presents a cross-cultural training method that focuses on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. This approach is unique for several reasons. First, one of the primary objectives of this training approach is to foster attitudes of flexibility and appreciation by avoiding the rigid presentation of individualism and collectivism in most cross-cultural training.

APA Citation: Okoro, E. A., Cardon, P. W., & Marshall, B. (2011). Using theory-driven scenarios to teach about individualism and collectivism in cross-cultural training. Journal of Business and Training Education, 20, 27-44.

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